A new study just published in the New England Journal of Medicine shows mixed results in dealing with Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes — the most severe type of diabetes that requires close monitoring of blood sugar, multiple insulin injections during the day, and a careful balancing of food. In the study islets, which are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, were transplanted into 36 patients with Type 1 diabetes. Results showed that the transplanted cells provided insulin independence for up to two years for some patients, but a majority needed insulin again at two years. The islets also helped in controlling blood sugar levels. The cells are taken from the pancreas of dead donors, and in 2001 only 400 were available, while there are 2 million people with juvenile diabetes. Thus, researchers are looking to the potential of stem cell research.