Federal Government Doles Out Millions in Greenhouse Pork

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The Kyoto global warming treaty may pose a threat to the U.S. economy, but it has spawned a cottage industry based in the nation’s capital, courtesy of the U.S. taxpayer. A review of Environmental Protection Agency grants shows that the federal government has shelled out well over $30 million in greenhouse pork to environmental advocacy organizations, academic “researchers,” state government agencies and foreign governments. This federal largess has created a growing constituency dependent on the success of the U.N. global warming treaty.

“Educating” Legislators. EPA grants are cleverly designed to create the appearance of broad support for its global warming policy agenda. For instance, the agency paid over $1.3 million to Local Environmental Initiatives-USA for the purpose of promoting “local government led, community-wide sustainable development planning.” Another half-million went to state government agencies to educate students, alert the general public, and design greenhouse gas reduction strategies. One Minnesota agency even received funding from EPA to “educate” state legislators about the looming threat of a warmer planet.

Numerous groups are paid with taxpayer dollars to carry EPA’s message to the general public. The Climate Institute received $727,000 to educate the public about the evils of fossil fuels. The agency also paid the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security $190,000 to disseminate “objective information” about global warming. The information is disseminated in print and on-line through a magazine called “Global Change,” which reproduces data already publicly available in federal government publications and web sites.

The EPA also funds lots of academic “research,” but it only grants money for studies likely to support its assumptions and theories about global warming. The World Resources Institute was awarded $150,000 to “show that policy actions that are under active consideration to mitigate global climate change can have immediate beneficial effects.” EPA granted Resources for the Future $437,000 to assess “the vulnerability of low income households” to global warming, presupposing the existence of the phenomenon itself.

Various global warming-related research grants totaling $12 million have been made to colleges and universities. These grants paid for assessments of the alleged public health risks of a warmer climate, and funded “workshops” to publicize global warming horrors.

Business Rent Seeking. To generate support for the global warming agenda from business, EPA gave $103,000 to the Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy, a lobbying group for fluorocarbon manufacturers who expect to benefit from the treaty. The group is a component of the International Climate Change Partnership, comprised of companies that support the global warming theory, such as British Petroleum, Boeing, and General Electric. These companies either seek regulatory protection from smaller firms or have close ties to the government from their dependence on federal subsidies. By cooperating with the Clinton-Gore Administration on global warming, they hope to reap profits at the expense of competing businesses.

Other EPA grants promote a similar form of business rent seeking. The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, the International Institute for Energy Conservation, and the Climate Institute were paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to agitate for energy conservation. U.S. dollars are being used to propagandize American industry about the need for energy conservation, to write “climate change action plans” for Third World countries, and to manage fossil fuel use reduction programs in China. These groups and their affiliates no doubt hope the Kyoto treaty will lead to an avalanche of government-funded energy conservation subsidies in the future.

The federal government’s efforts to enlist support for the Kyoto treaty are not confined within this country’s borders. The EPA has handed out almost $5 million tax dollars to an assortment of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), UN bureaucrats, and Third World regimes. The money is used to prepare greenhouse gas inventories, to develop public awareness of global warming forecasts, and to hold training conferences and other boondoggles for environmental consultants. Additional taxpayer dollars are channeled abroad through the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), a fund supervised by the World Bank and the UN. So far, the GEF has funded $675 million in Third World environmental projects over the last six years. Activist groups such as the World Wildlife Fund, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and Greenpeace are named as the executing agencies or collaborating organizations for $312 million worth of these activities.

Symbiotic Relationship. Legions of Green pressure groups, business lobbyists and tax-exempt “research” institutes have been put on the greenhouse dole. It should surprise no one that these recipients of Washington’s largess are preaching the global warming gospel. EPA’s activities create a symbiotic relationship between power-seeking agency bureaucrats and rent-seeking interest groups, each of which stands to benefit tremendously from the policies they advocate. Unfortunately, the losers in this game are the same taxpayers, consumers, and businesses who are being forced to bankroll it.

EPA Grants to Non-Profit Organizations for Environmental Advocacy

Organization                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Amount

Award Date Purpose Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy



Facilitate effective global communication regarding climate change initiatives American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy



Assess Climate Wise program for reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy



Promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions in China American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy



Disseminate information on energy efficient technologies to industry, government and NGOs Brookings Institution



Assess international trade impacts of global warming policies Center for Clean Air Policy



Study implementation and management of domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading system Center for Clean Air Policy



Provide opportunities for international negotiators and U.S. and foreign officials to “exchange ideas” on Joint Implementation of greenhouse gas reduction projects Center for International Environmental Law



Analyze natural resource sector environmental issues with international implications Climate Institute



Assist countries in creating action plans to implement an energy management program Climate Institute



Green Buildings Initiative to reduce “global warming gases” in municipal buildings Climate Institute



“Promote awareness of climate change and air pollution resulting from fossil fuel use” Climate Institute



Educate “millions of Americans” about global warming Community Nutrition Institute



Maintain a dialogue between environmental organizations and industry on trade and environmental issues Global Environment and Trade Study (GETS)



Analyze key issues underlying trade and environment debate International Institute for Energy Conservation



Assist countries in developing national climate change action plans Local Environmental Initiatives-USA



“Municipal collaboration” to champion the climate change issue Local Environmental Initiatives-USA



“Local Agenda 21-USA” to promote sustainable development planning at the local level Natural Resources Defense Council $729,251


Encourage the purchase of energy efficient equipment


Natural Resources Defense Council



Develop regional energy-efficiency code for Russia The Nature Conservancy



Develop sustainable development and ecosystem strategies The Nature Conservancy



Assess ecological threats to tropical reefs in the Bahamas The Nature Conservancy



Study “spatial biodiversity data” for use in environmental planning Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security



“Getting the Word Out:…dissemination of objective information regarding climate change issues through the publication of Global Change magazine’ Resources for the Future



Research the vulnerability of low income households to the hydrologic effects of climate change Resources for the Future



Theoretical and empirical economic research on global warming policies Resources for the Future



Climate change economics and policy research Resources for the Future



Research technological innovation and reduction in carbon emissions Resources for the Future



Assess and propose improvements to international environmental management practices World Resources Institute



Examine competitive impact of environmental regulations for business and environmental regulators World Resources Institute



Environmental Governance Initiative to disseminate info on Local Environmental Action Programs to Eastern Europe World Resources Institute



Environmental statistics and indicators World Resources Institute



Assess public health consequences of fossil fuel combustion, show that global warming policy actions can have beneficial effects World Resources Institute



Build business support for climate treaty World Resources Institute



Analysis of domestic and international “climate change mitigation strategies” World Wildlife Fund



Assessment of global marine contamination World Wildlife Fund



Train educators “by using biodiversity as an organizing theme” World Wildlife Fund



Facilitate participation by NGOs in international chemicals policy-making




Source: EPA Grants Information and Control System

EPA Grants to States

Recipient Award Award Date Activities Funded Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources $24,666 July 28, 1997 Develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory under Phase 1 of EPA State and Local Climate Change Program Hawaii State Dept. of Business, Economics $104,867 July 27, 1997 Develop and implement a GHG reductions strategy for Hawaii Maine State Planning Office $75,000 Sept. 4, 1997 Project to educate students about climate change; outreach program to inform general public about GHG mitigation Minnesota Pollution Control Agency $75,000 Aug.5, 1997 Use GHG mitigation to educate state legislature about climate change Oregon Economic Development Dept. $50,000 Sept. 25, 1997 Design and implement Asia-Pacific sustainable development network Oregon Economic Development Dept. $50,100 Sept. 26, 1997 Conference on Asia-Pacific sustainable development State of Iowa $75,000 Sept. 9, 1997 Global climate outreach program to develop GHG emission indices State of North Carolina Dept. of Commerce $50,000 June 16, 1998 North Carolina Climate Wise Program State of Tennessee $25,000 June 11, 1998 Maintain network of state governments promoting Climate Wise activities Wisconsin Dept. of Administration $50,000 June 5, 1998 Help companies assess facilities, lower GHG emissions and energy use



Source: EPA Grants Information and Control System

EPA Grants to Colleges and Universities

Recipient Award Award Date Activities Funded Boston University $124,595 Aug. 26, 1997 Dynamic models of industrial responses to climate change policy Colorado, University of $100,000 Sept. 27, 1996 Develop and apply methods for assessing vulnerability to climate change; transfer knowledge through courses, workshops, guidance manuals DelawareUniversity, of $299,216 Sept. 29, 1995 Development of early warning systems, strategies by states and localities to offset adverse health effects of climate change Harvard University $899,499 May 23, 1994 Analyze impacts of environmental policy on U.S. competitiveness

Assess economic/institutional impacts of responses to global climate change

Illinois, University of $100,000 Sept. 4, 1997 Research effects of methane emissions on global climate, their role in greenhouse gas abatement strategies


Illinois, University of $175,000 Aug. 23, 1996 Research effects of human-related gas emissions on ozone and climate Illinois, University of $380,000 Sept. 29, 1995 Research vulnerability of water resources to global climate change in the agricultural Midwest Indiana University $1,393,879 Sept. 13, 1996 Integrated assessment of strategies for climate change, impacts on Midwestern agriculture Iowa, University of $57,614 July 1, 1998 Assess public perceptions of global warming and its consequences through experimental futures market Johns Hopkins University $2,779,763 Oct. 1, 1996 Integrated assessment of U.S. public health effects of climate change Johns Hopkins University $794,168 Oct. 1, 1994 Assessment of public health effects of global climate change; communicate significant risks to policy makers Kentucky, University of $217,500 Aug. 9, 1995 Assessment and abatement of emissions with high global warming potential Maryland, University of $1,017,800 Mar. 31, 1994 Research ecological restoration and valuation, their effects on sustainable development Michigan, University of $169,223 Apr. 13, 1998 Workshop on effects of climate change in the Upper Great Lakes Michigan, University of $261,000 Sept. 3, 1996 Examine impact of land use and climate change on Great Lakes Minnesota, University of $300,000 Sept. 29, 1995 Research changes in water quality and availability, fish habitat in cold regions due to climate change Oklahoma, University of $244,955 Sept. 25, 1995 Research sustainable development and management of environmentally conscious technological innovation under alternative market conditions Oklahoma, University of $295,879 Sept. 24, 1993 Consequences to native fish faunas in upland streams of North America related to climate change Penn. State University $460,000 Sept. 29, 1995 Research on regional hydrologic adaptation to climate change Penn. State University $120,000 Sept. 27, 1995 Research regional stream-flow sensitivity to climate change in an urbanizing environment Penn. State University $591,981 Sept. 6, 1995 Assess public perceptions of climate change impacts on water quality and quantity, recreational fishing Southern University /

A. & M. University

$91,317 Sept. 30, 1997 Examine regional vulnerabilities to climate change, obtain information to be integrated across regions Texas A. & M. College $30,000 July 6, 1998 Promote sustainable economic development in Taiwan


Tufts University $1,325,370 Sept. 26, 1996 Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources Washington, University of $463,762 Sept. 29, 1995 Research to assess hydrological vulnerability to climate change



Source: EPA Grants Information and Control System

EPA Grants to Foreign Countries

Recipient Location Award Award Date Activities Funded Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology Kiev, Ukraine $682,981 Sept. 15, 1994 Assess Ukraine’s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptive responses

Develop policies for mitigating production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

China Coal Information Institute Beijing, China $535,000 Sept. 28, 1994 Establish clearinghouse to disseminate information about opportunities to reduce methane emissions from coal mining Committee

on the Challenges of Modern Society – NATO

Brussells, Belgium $3,000 Oct. 29, 1996 Workshop on ecosystem modeling of coastal lagoons for sustainable development Environmental Management and Law Assoc. Budapest, Hungary $126,016 July 10, 1997 Institutionalize sustainable environmental management practices on the local level Government of Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh $329,081 Sept. 12, 1994 Prepare GHG emission inventory; evaluate options for reducing emissions; disseminate information National Env. Protection Agency Beijing, China $50,000 Sept. 8, 1995 Develop and implement environmental labels for CFC-free, super energy-efficient refrigerators Natural Resources Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada $10,000 Aug. 28, 1997 Assess the performance of energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly buildings around the world Palau Conservation Society Koror, Palau $52,000 May 6, 1998 Sustainable development training conference Regional Env. Center (R.E.C.) for Central and Eastern Europe Budapest, Hungary $1,023,350 Mar. 15, 1994 Provide support for improved environmental management; assist in clearinghouse and sustainability functions


Republic of Kazniimosk Almaty, Kazakhstan $230,871 Sept. 10, 1993 Prepare a GHG emissions inventory; recommend climate change measures Republica Federativa do Brazil Brasilia, Brazil $400,000 Aug. 24, 1995 Inventory of net GHG emissions not controlled by Montreal Protocol The Royal Thai Government Bangkok, Thailand $537,400 Aug. 31, 1994 Assessment of sea level rise vulnerability; analysis of mitigation options

Draft national climate plan

Public education/institutional development activities

UNEP Chemicals Geneva, Switzerland $250,000 Sept. 9, 1997 Assist countries to implement recommendations of Agenda 21

Support development of environmental management tools for sustainable industrial development

UNITAR Geneva, Switzerland $924,990 Sept. 20, 1994 Training programs to assist countries in their implementation of Agenda 21 United Republic of Tanzania Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania $307,480 Sept. 23, 1994 Assess climate change impact; identify policy measures to mitigate GHG emissions

Create awareness in the public of the impacts of climate change

TOTAL   $4,980,669    

Source: EPA Grants Information and Control System

NGOs and the World Bank’s Global Environment Facility


Major NGO Executing Agencies/Collaborating Organizations


Project Funding World Conservation Union-IUCN, World Resources Institute Global


World Conservation Union-IUCN Global


World Conservation Union-World Conservation Union-IUCN, Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy Global


World Resources Institute, World Conservation Union-IUCN Global


World Resources Institute, World Conservation Union-IUCN Global


World Conservation Union-IUCN Central Africa region


World Wildlife Fund (WWF), World Conservation Union-IUCN Danube basin region


World Conservation Union-IUCN, World Wide Fund for Nature Pacific Islands



World Conservation Union-IUCN Indonesia/Malaysia


World Conservation Union-IUCN West Africa region


Greenpeace, The Nature Conservancy South Pacific islands


World Wildlife Fund-US Bhutan


World Wildlife Fund-Brazil Brazil


World Wildlife Fund-US Cameroon


World Wildlife Fund China


World Conservation Union-IUCN Congo


World Wildlife Fund Czech Republic


Center for Marine Conservation Dominican Republic


The Nature Conservancy Ecuador


World Wildlife Fund Georgia


Conservation International Guyana


World Wildlife Fund-India India


World Wildlife Fund-Indonesia, WALHI Indonesia


World Wildlife Fund, World Conservation Union-IUCN Lao PDR


World Conservation Union-IUCN Lebanon


Conservation International Madagascar


World Wildlife Fund-US Malawi


World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International Mexico


World Conservation Union-IUCN Mozambique


The Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund Papua New Guinea


World Conservation Union-IUCN, The Nature Conservancy Peru


World Wildlife Fund-US, Conservation International Philippines


World Wildlife Fund-Germany Romania


World Wildlife Fund Russia


World Conservation Union-IUCN, World Wildlife Fund Seychelles


World Wildlife Fund, World Conservation Union-IUCN Slovak Republic


World Conservation Union-IUCN Sri Lanka


World Conservation Union-IUCN Sri Lanka


World Wildlife Fund Tunisia


World Wildlife Fund, World Conservation Union-IUCN Uganda


World Conservation Union-IUCN Ukraine


World Wildlife Fund Ukraine


World Wildlife Fund, World Conservation Union-IUCN Vietnam





Source: Global Environment Facility


James M. Sheehan ([email protected]) is deputy director of environmental studies at CEI and is the author of Global Greens: Inside the International Environmental Establishment, a forthcoming book from the Capital Research Center. The accompanying tables were compiled with the assistance of Ilya Shapiro, Charles G. Koch Summer Fellow at CEI.